Smart water technologies

FLUIDO3 Bio Reactor

Activated sludge biological process

Biological treatment plants use a process during which microorganisms (activated sludge) of an aerobic type carry out the breakdown of organic substances into simple substances such as CO2 and H2O.

Some species of microorganisms also operate the transformation of ammonia nitrogen with final release of N2.

This type of process, which has been used for decades, especially in the treatment of civil and assimilated wastewater, requires good sludge oxygenation systems and adequate settling compartments to separate the treated water from the process sludge.

Biological Plant Schematic

Schematically, an activated sludge plant consists of a reactor, where the bacterial mass (sludge) comes into contact with the liquid to be purified. The volume of such a reactor is determined by the retention time required for the occurrence of the pollutant degradation process.

This mass is aerated to provide the oxygen necessary for bacterial life.

The water/sludge mixture subsequently flows to sedimentation, where activated sludge flocs are separated from the purified effluent, which is discharged by overflow; the decanted sludge is reintroduced into the reactor.

Types of Biological Plant

The various types of biological plants developed over the years all retain the part of the process based on purification by bacteria.

The various differences may be in the methods of water/sludge separation or in the method of keeping the sludge, either in suspension or in admixed mass.

The most commonly used processes are:

  • C.A.S.
  • S.B.R.
  • M.B.R.
  • M.B.B.R.

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